Dr. Arve Lee Willingham


Dr. Arve Lee Willingham graduated (DVM) from the University of Georgia’s College of Veterinary Medicine in 1986. Following four years of private veterinary practice he served as a Peace Corps volunteer (1990-1992) in the Middle Atlas Mountains of Morocco where he developed an interest in parasitic worm zoonoses of both public health and agricultural importance in developing countries. This interest led to a Fulbright Graduate Research Fellowship (1993) and PhD (1994-1997) study programs on zoonotic schistosomiasis at the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University in Denmark. His research work was recognized by the American Veterinary Medical Association (Samuel F. Scheidy Excellence in Research Award in 1995) and the American Association of Veterinary Parasitologists (Graduate Student Research Award in 1996). 

From 1997-2010 Dr Willingham was involved in projects in Africa funded by the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) aimed at strengthening research capacity on parasitic worm diseases of livestock belonging to small-scale farmers. From 2004-2006 he was seconded by DANIDA to the Nairobi-based International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) to work with their project on human health impacts of livestock keeping. Dr Willingham was lead organizer of international meetings on cysticercosis held in Arusha, Tanzania (2002) and Bellagio, Italy (2004 and 2006) and assisted in the establishment of the Regional Network for Asian Schistosomiasis plus Other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS+) and the Cysticercosis Working Group in Eastern and Southern Africa (CWGESA) for which he currently serves as an adviser. In November 2007 he organized, on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO), the regional meeting Integrated Control of Neglected Zoonoses in Africa held in Kenya.

Dr. Willingham worked at the World Health Organization’s Special Program for Tropical Diseases Research and Training (TDR) based in Geneva, Switzerland from 2010-2013 where he facilitated identification and prioritization of global research needs for helminth and zoonotic diseases as well as environment, agriculture and infectious diseases and assisted in initiating TDR’s new research programme on environmental and climate change impacts on vector-borne diseases. In 2013 he joined the faculty of Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM) and served 3 years as the inaugural Director of RUSVM’s One Health Center for Zoonoses and Tropical Veterinary Medicine. In 2015, Dr. Willingham was appointed RUSVM’s Associate Dean for Research and Postgraduate Studies and continues in that role. Since 2014 he has served on the AVMA’s Committee for International Veterinary Affairs, the Board of the One Health Commission, and the Standing Committee of the Association of Institutes of Tropical Veterinary Medicine. From 2017-2019, Dr. Willingham served as President of the Central American and Caribbean Association for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine (ACACPMT), hosting the 14th Congress of the ACACPMT on St. Kitts in 2019. 


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  1. Hobbs EC, Mwape KE, Phiri AM, Mambwe M, Mambo R, Thys S, Zulu G, Chembensofu M, Trevisan C, Van Damme I, Phiri IK, Devleesschauwer B, Ketzis J, Dorny P, Willingham ALGabriël S (2019). Perceptions and acceptability of piloted Taenia solium control and elimination interventions in two endemic communities in eastern Zambia. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 2019; 00:1-13. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13214. 
  2. Hobbs EC, Mwape KE, Devleesschauwer B, Van Damme I, Krit M, Berkvens D, Zulu G, Mambwe M, Chembensofu M, Trevisan C, Baauw J, Phiri IK, Speybroeck N, Ketzis J, Dorny P, Willingham AL, Gabriël S (2019). Effects of 'The Vicious Worm' educational tool on Taenia solium knowledge retention in Zambian primary school students after one year. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 13: e0007336. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007336. 

  3. Hewitt R, Willingham AL (2019). Status of schistosomiasis elimination in the Caribbean Region. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, 4: 24. doi: 10.3390/tropicalmed4010024.  

  4. Braae UC, Hung NM, Satrija F, Khieu V, Zhou XN, Willingham AL (2018). Porcine cysticercosis (Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica): mapping occurrence and areas potentially at risk in East and Southeast Asia. Parasities & Vectors, 11: 613. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3203-z. 
  5. Braae UC, Thomas LF, Robertson LJ, Dermauw V, Dorny P, Willingham AL, Saratsis A, Devleesschauwer B (2018). Epidemiology of Taenia saginata taeniosis/cysticercosis: a systematic review of the distribution in the Americas. Parasites & Vectors, 11: 518. doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-3079-y. 
  6. Hobbs EC, Mwape KE, Devleesschauwer B, Gabriël S, Chembensofu M, Mambwe M, Phiri IK, Masuku M, Zulu G, Colston A, Willingham AL, Berkvens D, Dorny P, Bottieau E, Speybroeck N (2018). Taenia solium from a community perspective: Preliminary costing data in the Katete and Sinda districts in Eastern Zambia. Veterinary Parasitology, 251: 63-67. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2018.01.001. 
  7. Hobbs EC, Mwape KE, Van Damme I, Berkvens D, Zulu G, Mambwe M, Chembensofu M, Phiri IK, Masuku M, Bottieau E, Devleesschauwer B, Speybroeck N, Colston A, Dorny P, Willingham AL 3rd, Gabriël S (2018). Preliminary assessment of the computer-based Taenia solium educational program 'The Vicious Worm' on knowledge uptake in primary school students in rural areas in eastern Zambia. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 23: 306-314. doi: 10.1111/tmi.13029.  
  8. Chembensofu M, Mwape KE, Van Damme I, Hobbs E, Phiri IK, Masuku M, Zulu G, Colston A, Willingham AL, Devleesschauwer B, Van Hul A, Chota A, Speybroeck N, Berkvens D, Dorny P, Gabriël S (2017). Re-visiting the detection of porcine cysticercosis based on full carcass dissections of naturally Taenia solium infected pigs. Parasites & Vectors, 10: 572. doi: 10.1186/s13071-017-2520-y.  
  9. Braae UC, Devleesschauwer B, Sithole F, Wang Z, Willingham AL (2017). Mapping occurrence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and areas at risk of porcine cysticercosis in Central America and the Caribbean basin. Parasites & Vectors, 10: 424. doi: 10.1186/s13071-017-2362-7. 
  10. Grevemeyer B, Vandenplas M, Beigel B, Cho E, Willingham AL, Verma A (2017). Dectection of leptospiral DNA in the urine of donkeys on the Caribbean island of Saint Kitts. Veterinary Sciences, 4: 2. pii: E2. doi: 10.3390/vetsci4010002.  
  11. Wu HW, Ito A, Ai L, Zhou XN, Acosta LP, Willingham 3rd AL (2016). Cysticercosis/taeniasis endemicity in Southeast Asia: current status and control measures. Acta Tropica, Jan 21: pii: S0001-706X(16)30013-4. doi: 4.10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.01.013. 
  12. Guerra MM, de Almeida AM, Willingham AL (2016). An overview of food safety and bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food production animals in the Caribbean region. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 48: 1095-1108. Doi: 10.1007/s11250-016-1082-x. 
  13. Cao ZG, Zhao YE, Willingham AL, Wang TP (2016). Towards the elimination of schistosomiasis japonica through control of the disease in domestic animals in the People’s Republic of China: a tale of over 60 years. Advances in Parasitology, 92: 269-306. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apar.2016.03.001 
  14. Willingham AL, Cruz-Martinez L, Scorpio DG, Gallagher CA (2016). Global solutions to regional challenges: bridging the one health divide in the Caribbean. One Health, 2: 8-10. 
  15. Hawash MBF, Betson M, Al-Jubury A, Ketzis J, Willingham AL, Bertelsen MF, Cooper PJ, Littlewood DTJ, Zhu XQ, Nejsum P (2016). Whipworms in humans and pigs: origins and demography. Parasites & Vectors, 9: 37. DOI 10.1186/s13071-016-1325-8 
  16. Havelaar AH, Kirk MD, Torgerson PR, Gibb HJ, Hald T, Lake RJ, Praet N, Bellinger DC, de Silva NR, Gargouri N, Speybroeck N, Cawthorne A, Mathers C, Stein C, Angulo FJ, Devleesschauwer B, World Health Organization Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (2015). World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010. PLoS Medicine, 12: e1001923.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001923. 
  17. Torgerson PR, Devleesschauwer B, Praet N, Speybroeck N, Willingham AL, Kasuga F, Rokni MB, Zhou XN, Fèvre EM, Sripa B, Gargouri N, Fürst T, Budke CM, Carabin H, Kirk MD, Angulo FJ, Havelaar A, de Silva N (2015). World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 11 Foodborne Parasitic Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis. PLoS Medicine, 12: e1001920. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001920. 
  18. Ghosh S, Navarro R, Malik YS, Willingham AL, Kobayashi N (2015). Whole genomic analysis of a porcine G6P[13] rotavirus strain. Veterinary Microbiology, 180: 286-298. 
  19. Pondja A, Neves L, Mlangwa J, Afonso S, Fafetine J, Willingham AL, Thamsborg SM, Johansen MV (2015). Incidence of porcine cysticercosis in Angonia District Mozambique. Preventative Veterinary Medicine, 118: 493-497. 
  20. Rawlins J, Portanova A, Zucheman I, Loftis A, Ceccato P, Willingham AL, Verma A (2014). Molecular detection of leptospiral DNA in environmental water on St Kitts. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11: 7953-7960. 
  21. Torgerson P.R., de Silva N.R., Fèvre E.M., Kasuga F., Rokni M.B., Zhou X.N., Sripa B., Gargouri N., Willingham A.L., Stein C. (2014).  The global burden of foodborne parasitic diseases: an update. Trends in Parasitology, 30: 20-26.  
  22. Komba E.V., Kimbi E.C., Ngowi H.A., Kimera S.I., Mlangwa J.E., Lekule F.P., Sikasunge C.S., Willingham A.L. 3rd, Johansen M.V., Thamsborg S.M. (2013). Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and associated risk factors in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, southern highlands of Tanzania. Veterinary Parasitology, 198: 284-291.  
  23. Mwanjali G., Kihamia C., Kuru K.N., Lekule F.P., Ngowi H., Johansen M.V., Thamsborg S.M., Willingham A.L. (2013). Prevalence and risk factors associated with human Taenia solium infections in Mbozi district, Mbeya Region, Tanzania. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7(3): e2102. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002102. 
  24. Solomon A.W., Engels D., Bailey R.L., Blake I.M., Brooker S., Chen J.X., Chen J.H., Churcher T.S., Drakeley C.J., Edwards T., Fenwick A., French M., Gabrielli A.F., Grassly N.C., Harding-Esch E.M., Holland M.J., Koukounari A., Lammie P.J., Leslie J., Mabey D.C., Rhajaoui M., Secor W.E., Stothard J.R., Wei H., Willingham A.L., Zhou X.N., Peeling R.W. (2012). A diagnostics platform for the integrated mapping, monitoring, and surveillance of neglected tropical diseases: rationale and target product profiles. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 6: e1746. 
  25. Pondja A., Neves L., Mlangwa J., Afonso S., Fafetine J., Willingham A.L. 3rd, Thamsborg S.M., Johansen M.V. (2012). Use of oxfendazole to control porcine cysticercosis in a high-endemic area of mozambique. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 6: e1651. 
  26. Krecek R.C., Mohammed H., Michael L.M., Schantz P.M., Ntanjana L., Morey L., Werre S.R., Willingham A.L. 3rd. (2012). Risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. PLoS One, 7: e37718. 
  27. McCarthy J.S., Lustigman S., Yang G.J., Barakat R.M., García H.H., Sripa B., Willingham A.L., Prichard R.K., Basáñez M.G..(2012). A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: diagnostics for control and elimination programmes. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 6: e1601. 
  28. Matos C., Sitoe C., Afonso S., Banze J., Baptista J., Dias G., Rodrigues F., Atanásio A., Nhamusso A., Penrith M.L., Willingham A.L. 3rd (2011). A pilot study of common health problems in smallholder pigs in Angónia and Boane districts, Mozambique. Journal of South African Veterinary Association, 82: 166-169. 
  29. Afonso S.M., Vaz Y., Neves L., Pondja A., Dias G., Willingham A.L., Vilhena M., Duarte P.C., Jost C.C., Noormahomed E.V. (2011). Human and porcine Taenia solium infections in Mozambique: identifying research priorities. Animal Health Research Review, 12: 123-129. doi: 10.1017/S1466252311000077. (Review) 
  30. Molyneux D., Hallaj Z., Keusch G.T., McManus D.P., Ngowi H., Cleaveland S., Ramos-Jimenez P., Gotuzzo E., Kar K., Sanchez A., Garba A., Carabin H., Bassili A., Chaignat C.L., Meslin F.X., Abushama H.M., Willingham A.L., Kioy D. (2011). Zoonoses and marginalised infectious diseases of poverty: where do we stand? Parasites & Vectors, 4: 106. 
  31. Ngowi H.A., Mkupasi E.M., Lekule F.P., Willingham III A.L., Thamsborg S.M. (2011). Impact of farmer education on their knowledge, attitudes, and practices in southern Tanzania: a case for Taenia solium control. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 23, Article #2. http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd23/1/ngow23002.htm 
  32. Willingham 3rd, A.L., Wu, H.W., Conlan, J., Satrija, F. (2010). Combating Taenia solium cysticercosis in Southeast Asia an opportunity for improving human health and livestock production. Advances in Parasitology72: 235-66. doi: 10.1016/S0065-308X(10)72009-1. 
  33. Pondja A., Neves L., Mlangwa J., Afonso S., Fafetine J., Willingham A.L., Thamsborg S.M., Johansen M.V.. (2010). Prevalence and risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in Angónia District, Mozambique. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 4: e594. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000594. 
  34. Ngowi H.A., Kassuku A.A., Carabin H., Mlangwa J.E., Mlozi M.R., Mbilinyi B.P., Willingham 3rd. A.L. (2010). Spatial clustering of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 4: e652. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000652. 
  35. Foyaca-Sibat H, Cowan L.D., Carabin H., Targonska I., Anwary M.A., Serrano-Ocaña G., Krecek R.C., Willingham 3rd A.L. (2009). Accuracy of serological testing for the diagnosis of prevalent neurocysticercosis in outpatients with epilepsy, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 3: e562. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000562. 
  36. Winkler A.S., Willingham 3rd A.L., Sikasunge C.S., Schmutzhard E. (2009). Epilepsy and neurocysticercosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 121 (supplement 3): 3-12. 
  37. Sikasunge C.S., Phiri I.K., Willingham A.L. 3rd, Johansen M.V. (2009). Dynamics and longevity of maternally-acquired antibodies to Taenia solium in piglets born to naturally infected sows. The Veterinary Journal, doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.03.026. 
  38. Waiswa C.S., Fèvre E.M., Nsadha Z., Sikasunge C.S., Willingham A.L. 3rd (2009). Porcine cysticercosis in southeast Uganda: seroprevalence in Kamuli and Kaliro Districts. Journal of Parasitology Research. Article ID 375493, doi:10.1155/2009/375493, 5 pages . http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jpr/2009/375493.html. 
  39. Sikasunge C.S., Johansen M.V., Phiri I.K., Willingham A.L. 3rd, Leifsson P.S. (2009). The immune response in Taenia solium neurocysticercosis in pigs is associated with astrogliosis, axonal degeneration and altered blood-brain barrier permeability. Veterinary Parasitology, 160: 242-250. 
  40. Ngowi H.A., Mlangwa J.E.D., Mlozi M.R.S., Tolma E.L., Kassuku A.A., Carabin H., Willingham A.L. 3rd (2009). Implementation and evaluation of a health-promotion strategy for control of Taenia solium infections in northern Tanzania (2009). International Journal of Health Promotion & Education, 47: 24-34. 
  41. Willingham A.L. 3rd, Harrison L.J., Fèvre E.M., Parkhouse M.E., Cysticercosis Working Group in Europe (2008). Inaugural meeting of the Cysticercosis Working Group in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14: e2. 
  42. Sikasunge C.S., Phiri I.K., Phiri A.M., Siziya S., Dorny P., Willingham A.L. 3rd (2008). Prevalence of Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis in Eastern, Southern and Western provinces of Zambia. Veterinary Journal, 176: 240-244. 
  43. Sikasunge C.S., Phiri I.K., Johansen M.V., Willingham A.L. 3rd, Leifsson P.S, (2008). Host-cell apoptosis in Taenia solium-induced brain granulomas in naturally infected pigs. Parasitology, 135: 1237-1242. 
  44. Sikasunge C.S., Johansen M.V., Willingham A.L. 3rd, Leifsson P.S., Phiri I.K. (2008). Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis: viability of cysticerci and persistency of antibodies and cysticercal antigens after treatment with oxfendazole. Veterinary Parasitology, 158: 57-66. 
  45. Riley S., Carabin H., Bélisle P., Joseph L., Tallo V., Balolong E., Willingham A.L., Fernandez T.J., Gonzales R.O., Olveda R., McGarvey S.T. (2008). Multi-host transmission dynamics of Schistosoma japonicum in Samar province, the Philippines. PLoS Medicine, 5: e18. 
  46. Ngowi H.A., Carabin H., Kassuku A.A., Mlozi M.R., Mlangwa J.E., Willingham A.L. 3rd (2008). A health-education intervention trial to reduce porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Tanzania. Preventative Veterinary Medicine, 85: 52-67. 
  47. Krecek R.C., Michael L.M., Schantz P.M., Ntanjana L., Smith M.F., Dorny P., Harrison L.J., Grimm F., Praet N., Willingham A.L. 3rd (2008). Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine from a community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Veterinary Parasitology, 154: 38-47. 
  48. Zhou XN, Leonardo LR, Acosta LP, Johansen MV, Willingham AL, Olveda RM (2007). Schistosomiasis and other zoonoses in Southeast Asia - Meeting report of the 6th Regional Network for Asian Schistosomiasis. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 38: 406-409. 
  49. Sikasunge CS, Phiri IK, Phiri AM, Dorny P, Siziya S, Willingham AL 3rd (2007). Risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in selected districts of Eastern and Southern provinces of Zambia. Veterinary Parasitology, 143: 59-66. 
  50. Schelling E., Grace D., Willingham A.L. 3rd, Randolph T. (2007). Research approaches for improved pro-poor control of zoonoses. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 28: S345-356. 
  51. Pfukenyi D.M., Mukaratirwa S., Willingham A.L., Monrad J. (2007). Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidia infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 74:129-142. 
  52. Ngowi H.A., Tolma E.L., Kassuku A.A., Mlozi M.R.S., Mlangwa J.E.D., Carabin H., Willingham A.L. III (2007). Using the PRECEDE model to plan a health promotion strategy for control of Taenia solium infections in northern Tanzania. International Journal of Health Promotion & Education, 45: 41-48. 
  53. Ngowi N.A., Mlangwa J.E.D., Carabin H., Mlozi M.R.S., Kassuku A.A., Kimera S.I., Willingham A.L. III (2007). Financial efficiency of health and pig management education intervention in controlling porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu District, northern Tanzania. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 19, http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd19/5/ngow19062.htm (article #62). 
  54. Iburg T, Johansen MV, Leifsson PS, Willingham AL, Lindberg R. (2007). Hepatic changes in congenital Schistosoma japonicum infections in pigs. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 136: 250-255. 
  55. Fernandez T.J. Jr, Tarafder M.R., Balolong E. Jr, Joseph L., Willingham A.L. 3rd, Bélisle P., Webster J.P., Olveda R.M., McGarvey S.T., Carabin H. (2007). Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection among animals in fifty villages of Samar province, the Philippines. Vector Borne Zoonotic Diseases, 7: 147-55. 
  56. Phiri I.K., Dorny P., Gabriel S., Willingham A.L. 3rd, Sikasunge C., Siziya S., Vercruysse J. (2006). Assessment of routine inspection methods for porcine cysticercosis in Zambian village pigs. Journal of Helminthology, 80: 69-72. 
  57. Pfukenyi DM, Mukaratirwa S, Willingham AL, Monrad J. (2006). Epidemiological studies of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 73: 179-191. 
  58. Pfukenyi D.M., Mukaratirwa S., Willingham A.L., Monrad J. (2006). Epidemiological studies of Fasciola gigantica infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 73: 37-51. 
  59. McGarvey S.T., Carabin H., Balolong Jr. E., Bélisle P., Fernandez T., Joseph L., Tallo V., Gonzales R., Tarafder M.R., Alday P. Willingham A.L., Olveda R. (2006). Cross-sectional associations between intensity of animal and human infection with Schistosoma japonicum in Western Samar Province, Philippines. World Health Bulletin, 84: 446-452. 
  60. Flisser A., Rodriguez-Canul R., Willingham III A.L. (2006). Control of the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex. Future developments. Veterinary Parasitology, 139: 283-292. 
  61. Carabin H., Krecek R.C., Cowan L.D., Michael L., Foyaca-Sibat H., Nash T., Willingham A.L. (2006). Estimation of the cost of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 2: 906-916. 
  62. Boa M.E., Mahundi E.A., Kassuku A.A., Willingham 3rd A.L., Kyvsgaard N.C. (2006). Epidemiological survey of swine cysticercosis using ante-mortem and post-mortem examination tests in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Veterinary Parasitology, 139: 249-255. 
  63. Riley S., Carabin H., Marshall C., Olveda R., Willingham A. L., McGarvey, S. T. (2005). Estimating and modeling the dynamics of the intensity of infections with Schistosoma japonicum in villagers of Leyte, Philippines. Part II: Intensity-specific transmission of S. japonicum. The Schistosomiasis Transmission and Ecology Project. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 72: 754-761. 
  64. Pfukenyi D.M., Mukaratirwa S., Willingham A.L., Monrad J. (2005). Epidemiological studies of amphistome infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe (2005). Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 72: 67-86. 
  65. Carabin H., Budke C.M., Cowan L.D., Willingham A.L. 3rd, Torgerson P.R. (2005). Methods for assessing the burden of parasitic zoonoses: echinococcosis and cysticercosis. Trends in Parasitology, 21: 327-333. 
  66. Carabin H., Balolong E., Joseph L., McGarvey S.T., Johansen M.V., Fernandez T., Willingham A.L., Olveda R., Schistosomiasis Transmission And Ecology in The Philippines Step Project (2005). Estimating sensitivity and specificity of a faecal examination method for Schistosoma japonicum infection in cats, dogs, water buffaloes, pigs, and rats in Western Samar and Sorsogon Provinces. The Philippines. International Journal of Parasitology, 35: 1517-1524. 
  67. Ngowi H.A., Phiri I.K., Afonso S., Matenga E., Boa M.E., Mukaratirwa S., Githigia S., Saimo M., Sikasunge C., Maingi N., Lubega G.W., Kassuku A., Michael L., Siziya S., Krecek R.C., Noormahomed E., Vilhena M., Nsengiyumva G., Andriantsimahavandy A., Dorny P., Johansen M.V., Willingham III A.L. (2004). Taenia solium cysticercosis in eastern and southern Africa: an emerging problem in agriculture and public health.  Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 35 (Supplement). 
  68. Ngowi H. A., Kassuku A. A., Maeda G., Boa M. E., Carabin, H., Willingham III A. L.  (2004). Risk factors for the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Tanzania. Veterinary Parasitology , 120: 275 – 283. 
  69. Ngowi H. A., Kassuku A. A., Maeda G. E., Boa M. E., Willingham A. L. (2004). A slaughter slab survey for extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections in northern Tanzania. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 36: 335-340. 
  70. Krecek R.C., Michael L.M., Willingham III A.L., Schantz P.M. (2004).  Questionnaire results from a community-based project on porcine cysticercosis in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.  Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 35: 271 - 274. 
  71. Dorny P., Phiri I.K., Vercruysse J., Gabriel S., Willingham III A.L., Brandt J., Victor B., Speybroeck N., Berkvens D. (2004). A Bayesian approach for estimating values for prevalence and diagnostic test characteristics of porcine cysticercosis. International Journal of Parasitology 34: 569 – 576. 
  72. Willingham III A. L., De N. V., Doanh N. Q., Cong, L. D., Dung, T. V., Dorny P., Cam P. D., Dalsgaard A. (2003). Current status of cysticercosis in Vietnam. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 34 (Suppl): 35 – 50. 
  73. Phiri I. K., Ngowi H., Afonso S. M. S., Matenga E., Boa M., Mukaratirwa S., Githigia S. M., Saimo M. K., Sikasunge C. S., Maingi N., Lubega G. W., Kassuku A., Michael L. M., Siziya S., Krecek R. C., Noormahomed E., Vilhena M., Dorny P., Willingham III A. L. (2003). The Emergence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a serious agricultural problem and public health risk. Acta Tropica 87: 13 – 23. 
  74. Mukaratirwa S., Kassuku A. A., Willingham A. L., Murrell K. D. (2003). Background to the international action planning workshop on Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis with special focus on eastern and southern Africa. Acta Tropica 87: 3 – 5. 
  75. Mafojane N. A., Appleton C. C., Krecek R. C., Michael L. M., Willingham III A. L. (2003). The current status of neurocysticercosis in eastern and southern Africa. Acta Tropica 87: 25 – 33. 
  76. Keyyu J. D., Kyvsgaard N.C., Kassuku A. A., Willingham A. L. (2003). Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in traditional and dairy cattle farms in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Veterinary Parasitology 114: 51 – 61. 
  77. Keyyu J. D., Kassuku A. A., Kyvsgaard N. C., Willingham A. L. (2003). Gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Zebu cattle under pastoral and nomadic management systems in the lower plain of the southern highlands of Tanzania. Veterinary Research Communications 27: 371 – 380. 
  78. Joshi D. D., Maharjan M., Johansen M. V., Willingham III A. L., Sharma M. (2003). Improving meat inspection and control in resource-poor communities: the Nepal example. Acta Tropica 87: 119 - 127. 
  79. Boa M., Mukaratirwa S., Willingham A. L., Johansen M. V. (2003). Regional action plan for combating Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis in eastern and southern Africa. Acta Tropica 87: 183 – 186. 
  80. Zhou X. N., Acosta L., Willingham A. L., Leonardo L. R., Chen M. G., Aligui G., Zheng F., Olveda R. (2002). Regional Network for Research, Surveillance and Control of Asian Schistosomiasis (RNAS). Acta Tropica , 82: 305 – 311. 
  81. Phiri I. K., Dorny P., Gabriel S., Willingham A. L., Speybroeck N., Vercruysse J. (2002). The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Provinces of Zambia. Veterinary Parasitology 108: 31 – 39. 
  82. Boa M. E., Kassuku A. A, Willingham A. L., Keyyu J. D., Phiri I. K., Nansen P. (2002). Distribution and density of cysticerci of Taenia solium by muscle groups and organs in naturally infected local finished pigs in Tanzania. Veterinary Parasitology, 106: 155 – 164. 
  83. Shi Y. E., Johansen M. V., Li F. R., Willingham A. L., Bøgh H. O., Liao L. G., Han J. J., Ning C. X. (2001). An epidemiological investigation of congenital Schistosoma japonicum transmission in Hubei Province, P. R. China.  Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 32: 323 - 325. 
  84. Olesen A., Mubila L., Willingham III, A. L. (2001). Human Helminth Infections - Future Research Foci in Eastern & Southern Africa. Trends in Parasitology, 17: 304 - 305. 
  85. Keyyu J. D., Kassuku A. A., Willingham A. L., Kyvsgaard N. C. (2001). Peri-parturient helminthosis in strains of small East African goats in Tanzania. Preventative Veterinary Medicine, 50: 177-182. 
  86. Saeed I., Kapel C., Saida L. A., Willingham L., Nansen P. (2000). Epidemiology of Echinococcus granulosus in Arbil province, Northern Iraq, 1990 – 1998. Journal of Helminthology, 74: 83 – 88. 
  87. Magaya A., Willingham A. L., Kyvsgaard N., Thamsborg S., Mukaratirwa, S. (2000). Effects of anthelmintic treatment and feed supplemetation on grazing Tuli weaner steers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Journal of the South Africa Veterinary Association, 71: 31 - 37. 
  88. Hurst M., Willingham III A. L., Lindberg R. (2000). Tissue responses in experimental schistosomiasis japonica in the pig: a histopathologic study of different stage of single low- or high-dose infections. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 62: 45 – 56. 
  89. Hindsbo O., Andreassen J., Willingham L., Bendixen M., Nielsen M. A., Nielsen C. V., Nielsen, N. O. (2000). Age-dependent occurrence of the intestinal ciliate Balantidium coli in pigs at a Danish research farm. Acta veterinaria Scandinavica, 41: 79 - 83. 
  90. Boes J., Willingham III A. L.,  Shi F. H., Hu X. G., Eriksen L., Nansen P., Stewart T. B.  (2000) Prevalence and distribution of pig helminths in the Dongting Lake region (Hunan Province) of the People's Republic of China. Journal of Helminthology, 74: 45 - 52. 
  91. Willingham III, A. L., Johansen M. V., Bøgh H. O., Ito A., Andreassen J., Lindberg R., Christensen N. Ø., Nansen, P. (1999). Short report: congenital transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in pigs. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, 60: 311 - 312. 
  92. McGarvey S. T., Zhou X. N., Willingham III A. L., Feng Z., Olveda R. (1999). The epidemiology and host-parasite relationships of Schistosoma japonicum in definitive hosts. Parasitology Today, 15: 214 - 215. 
  93. Kæstel P., Lewis F. J., Willingham A. L., Bøgh H. O., Eriksen L., Michaelsen K. F., Sandström B., Høy C. E., Friis, H. (1999). Schistosoma japonicum infection and serum and tissue concentrations of retinol and zinc in pigs. Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology, 93: 489 - 499. 
  94. Willingham III A. L., Hurst M., Bøgh H. O., Johansen M. V., Lindberg R., Christensen N. Ø., Nansen P. (1998). Schistosoma japonicum in the pig: The host-parasite relationship as influenced by the intensity and duration of experimental infections. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 58: 248-256. 
  95. Willingham A. L., Johansen M. V., Barnes E. H. (1998). A new technic for counting Schistosoma japonicum eggs in pig feces. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 29: 128-130. 
  96. Willingham A. L., Bøgh H. O., Johansen M.V., Christensen N. Ø., Nansen P. (1997). Schistosoma japonicum infection in the pig: The effect of a patent primary infection on a challenge infection. Acta Tropica, 66: 51-59. 
  97. Schou T. W., Bøgh H. O., Willingham A. L., Brück I., Nielsen C. G., Sørensen E., Eriksen L., Andreassen J. (1997). In vitro maintenance of Schistosoma japonicum and surgical transfer from donor to naive recipient pigs. Veterinary Parasitology, 73: 129-137. 
  98. Bøgh H. O., Willingham A. L., Johansen M. V., Eriksen L., Christensen N. Ø. (1997). Recovery of Schistosoma japonicum from experimentally infected pigs by perfusion of liver and mesenteric veins. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica,  38: 147 - 156. 
  99. Willingham A. L., Bøgh H. O., Vennervald B. J., Johansen M. V., Eriksen L., Christensen N. Ø., Nansen P. (1996). Worm establishment and egg production of Schistosoma japonicum in pigs infected by percutaneous methods or intramuscular injection. Veterinary Parasitology, 61: 157 - 163. 
  100. Willingham A. L., Ockens N. W., Kapel C. M. O., Monrad J. (1996) A helminthological survey of wild red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the metropolitan area of Copenhagen. Journal of Helminthology, 70: 259 263. 
  101. Willingham A. L., Hurst M. (1996). The pig as a unique host model for Schistosoma japonicum infection. Parasitology Today, 12: 132 - 134. 
  102. Bøgh H. O., Willingham A. L., Barnes E. H., Johansen M. V., Christensen N. Ø., Nansen  P. (1996). A methodological study on egg counts in tissues from pigs infected with Schistosoma japonicumVeterinary Parasitology, 65: 21 - 27. 
  103. Willingham A. L., Johansen M. V., Vennervald B. J., Christensen N. Ø., Nansen P. (1994). Experimental infection of Danish Landrace/Yorkshire crossbred pigs with Schistosoma japonicum from the People’s Republic of China. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 35: 395 – 400. 
Click to view book chapters / commissioned reviews
  1.  1. Ngowi H. A., Mukaratirwa S., Lekule F. P., Maingi N., Waiswa C., Sikasunge C., Afonso S., Sumbu J., Ramiandrasoa S., Penrith M. L., Willingham A. L. (2013). Agricultural Impact of Porcine Cyisticercosis in Africa: A Review. In:  Foyaca Sibat H., Novel Aspects on Cysticercosis and NeurocysticercosisInTech, DOI: 10.5772/51196. http://www.intechopen.com/books/novel-aspects-on-cysticercosis-and-neurocysticercosis/agricultural-impact-of-porcine-cyisticercosis-in-africa-a-review 
  2. Willingham, A. L., Wu, H. W., Conlan, J., Satrija, F. (2010). Combating Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia: An Opportunity for Improving Human Health and Livestock Production. In: Zhou X.N., Utzinger J., Bergquist R., Olveda R., Important Helminth infections in Southeast AsiaAdvances in Parasitology, 72: 235-266. 
  3. Willingham, A. L. (2008). Combating Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia: An Opportunity for Improving Human Health and Livestock Production. In: Important Helminth Infections in Southeast Asia. Regional Network for Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Zoonotic Helminthoses, pp 46-67. 
  4. Willingham A. L. 3rd, Engels D. (2006). Control of Taenia solium Cysticercosis/ Taeniosis. In: Molyneux D., Control of Human Parasitic DiseasesAdvances in Parasitology, 61C: 509-566. 
  5. McGarvey S. T., Aligui G. D., Kurtis J. D., Willingham III A. L., Carabin H., Olveda R. (2004). Interdisciplinary Research on Schistosoma japonicum. In: Mascie-Taylor N., McGarvey S. T. & Peters J., The Changing Face of Disease: Implications for Society. CRC Press, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. pp. 114 - 129. 
  6. Willingham, A. L. (2002). Appendix 10, New research opportunities in meat-borne and other parasitic zoonoses. In: Perry, B. D., Randolph, T. F., McDermott, J. J., Sones, K. R. and Thornton, P. K., Investing in Animal Health to Alleviate Poverty. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya. 22 pages. 
  7. Geerts S., Zoli A., Willingham L., Brandt J., Dorny P., Preux P. M. (2002). Taenia solium cysticercosis in Africa: an under-recognised problem. In: Craig P. and Pawlowski Z., Cestode Zoonoses: Echinococcosis and Cysticercosis. An Emergent and Global problem. IOS Press, Amsterdam, pp. 13-23.